• Structural & Valvular Interest Community

    Annotated Bibliography

    Comments and suggestions for additional references can be submitted to this section editor at egrammer@scai.org.


    Aortic Stenosis

    Review article on pathology of calcific aortic stenosis

    • Citation: Dweck MR, Boon NA, Newby DE. Calcific aortic stenosis. A disease of the valve and the myocardium. J Am Coll Cardiol 2012;60:1854–63.

    •  Description: An excellent review article summarizing the pathology, underlying causative mechanisms and basic science of calcific aortic stenosis.

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    PCI Pharmacology


    • Citation: Lincoff AM, Bittl JA, Harrington RA, Feit F, Kleiman NS, Jackman JD, Sarembock IJ, Cohen DJ, Spriggs D, Ebrahimi R, Keren G, Carr J, Cohen EA, Betriu A, Desmet W, Kereiakes DJ, Rutsch W, Wilcox RG, de Feyter PJ, Vahanian A, Topol EJ; REPLACE-2 Investigators. Bivalirudin and provisional glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade compared with heparin and planned glycoprotein IIb/IIIa blockade during percutaneous coronary intervention: REPLACE-2 randomized trial. JAMA. 2003 Feb 19;289(7):853-63.

    • Description: The REPLACE-2 trial randomized 6010 patients undergoing urgent or elective PCI to bivalirudin with provisional use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor or heparin with routine use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor.  The main finding was that bivalirudin alone was non inferior to heparin plus routine glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor use in terms of ischemic endpoints but was associated with significantly less bleeding. This study introduced the concept of bleeding as a component of the combined clinical endpoint in clinical trial involving anticoagulants in PCI and also provided the evidence that established bivalirudin as the procedural anticoagulant of choice for elective and urgent PCI’s in the modern era.

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    Vein Graft Intervention

    The SAFER Trial

    • Citation: Baim DS, Wahr D, George B, Leon MB, Greenberg J, Cutlip DE, Kaya U, Popma JJ, Ho KKL, Kuntz RE on behalf of the the Saphenous vein graft Angioplasty Free of Emboli Randomized (SAFER) Trial Investigators.  Randomized trial of a distal embolic protection device during percutaneous intervention of saphenous vein aorto-coronary bypass grafts. Circulation. 2002;105:1285-1290.

    • Description: This was a large, randomized controlled trial of 801 patients undergoing stenting of saphenous vein graft lesions and randomized to stenting alone versus stenting with a first generation distal embolic protection device. This study demonstrated a 42% relative reduction in major adverse cardiac events primarily driven by a reduction in acute MI and no reflow. This study established the importance and clinical utility of distal embolic protection for saphenous vein graft interventions.

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